Currently, there are many methods used to limit short-circuit current. We distinguish between two methods, active and passive. Passive methods consist in selecting appropriate protective components or manipulating current parameters, which translates into significant power losses.
Active methods include fuse fuses, IS limiters and superconducting fault current limiters. The first two methods are disposable, as they are based on destroying the conductor by blowing it up with a pyrotechnic charge, or melting it when a short circuit occurs. Therefore, each time the limiter is used, it is necessary to re-interfere with the installation and is problematic to install.
The situation is different with a superconducting fault current limiter. The SFCL uses its property to immediately exit the superconductive state when the current suddenly increases. In the superconductive state, the resistance is equal to 0, which allows the current to flow normally through the system, but when it returns to a normal resistive state, the current is redirected to the relieving system.
Short-circuit current as a function of the distance to the place of short-circuit, with overcurrent protection settings installed without delay: a) for LAB section b) for LBC section